Program
Sensors and Sensing in
the Natural and Fabricated Worlds

Second International Symposium on the
Mechanics of Plants, Animals and Their Environments:

June 11-16, 2000
Il Ciocco International Conference Center
Tuscany, Italy

Chair
Joseph A. C. Humphrey
Bucknell University
Co-Chairs
Friedrich Barth
University of Vienna
Timothy Secomb
University of Arizona

United Engineering Foundation
3 Park Avenue, 27th Floor
New York, N.Y. 10016-5902
T: 1-212-592-7836 - F: 1-212-591-7441
engfnd@aol.com --- www.engfnd.org

The United Engineering Foundation and conference organizers would like to thank the U.S. National Science Foundation for their financial support and the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for being a technical co-sponsor of the conference.

IMPORTANT INFORMATION

FOREWORD
All living creatures, ranging from single cells to entire plants and animals, possess sensors and sensing processes by means of which they perceive and respond to the environments within and outside them. For these creatures, sensing is critical for regulating metabolic, reproductive and other important processes, as well as for locomotion and feeding. The sensors in these organisms have been perfected by evolutionary advances, imposed by natural selective pressures over hundreds of millions of years. As a consequence, evolution has led to a remarkable number and variety of sensory systems rich in terms of design variations. These designs exhibit an impressive efficiency, successfully adjusted by variation and natural selection to fulfill the needs of a particular species in a specific habitat.

More recently, especially in the last quarter of the last century, technology has made possible the design and fabrication of corresponding artificial sensors for scientific, industrial and commercial purposes. Increasingly, the trend is towards miniaturization with Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS devices) being the focus of attention. MEMS devices promise to revolutionize the way engineering is practiced over a wide range of professions and industries ranging from medicine and bioengineering to intra- and extra-terrestrial exploration.

Curiously, however, to date there has been little organized and serious interdisciplinary discussion and information exchange on the topic of sensors and sensing among biologists, engineers, mathematicians and physical scientists. The chairs of this symposium believe that it is time to redress the situation and, to this end, have organized this international meeting.

Our premise is that many of the complex biophysical and biochemical processes of sensing in living organisms are governed by the same fundamental physical-chemical principles and laws that describe much simpler artificial sensors. With its focus on Sensors and Sensing in the Natural and Fabricated Worlds, this Symposium seeks to uncover the biological, physical-chemical and engineering fundamentals that will allow a fuller understanding of the nature and performance of natural sensors and, as a result, the improved and enriched conceptualization, design, fabrication and range of applicability of artificial microsensors.

This pre-symposium volume contains copies of abstracts submitted as the basis for oral or poster presentations at MPATHE-2000. The abstracts were reviewed by the symposium session organizers, who were also instrumental in contacting many of the authors. The abstracts have been organized into eight broad categories representing the sessions of the meeting: 1) Mechanical Sensors (Waves, Sound and Vibrations); 2) Mechanical Sensors (Force And Motion); 3) Visual Sensors (Photoreception and Vision); 4) Visual Sensors (Vertebrate Vision); 5) Chemosensors and Chemosensing; 6) Microfluidics; 7) Micro-Systems in Water and Air; and 8) Other Unusual Sensors. We are indebted to the session organizers for their hard work and to the authors for the high quality of the abstracts received. A post-symposium volume of selected full-length papers is planned.

Funding to offset the registration and/or travel costs of many MPATHE-2000 speakers was graciously provided by the National Science Foundation in the form of Award Number 9907203. Funding and the technical support of the United Engineering Foundation to prepare and run the symposium are also gratefully acknowledged. Special thanks go to Andrea Bertram of Bucknell University for her energy, enthusiasm and efficiency in helping the chairs plan and organize the symposium.
Friedrich G. Barth
Joseph A. C. Humphrey
Timothy W. Secomb

Sunday, June 11, 2000

17:00 - 19:00 Registration (Lobby)

19:00 - 19:15 INTRODUCTION AND PLENARY LECTURE SESSION
Chairs: Joseph A.C. Humphrey, Bucknell University
Timothy W. Secomb, University of Arizona
Frank Schmidt, UEF Conferences Committee

19:15 - 20:15 Plenary Lectures
Sensors and sensing: a biologist's view
Friedrich G. Barth
University of Vienna

Sensors and sensing: an engineer's view
Hans Meixner
Zrentralabteilung Technik

20:30 - 22:00 Dinner

22:00 - 23:00 Opening Reception

Monday, June 12, 2000

07:30 - 08:15 Breakfast Buffet (Dining Room)

Session 1: MECHANICAL SENSORS (WAVES, SOUND AND VIBRATIONS)
Session Chairs: Axel Michelsen, Odense University
Friedrich G. Barth, University of Vienna

08:15 - 09:00 Twenty ways to build an ear (Keynote Paper)
Axel Michelsen
Odense University

09:00 - 09:15 Discussion of Keynote Paper

09:15 - 09:45 Microphone design parameters
Per Rasmussen
G.R.A.S. Sound and Vibration, Denmark

09:45 - 10:15 Coffee Break

10:15 - 10:45 Common design features of vertebrate auditory sensors
Edwin R. Lewis
University of California, Berkeley

10:45 - 11:15 Sensing sound pressure in air: The middle and external ears of terrestrial vertebrates
John Rosowski
Harvard Medical School

11:15 - 11:45 The sense of hearing in fishes and auditory scene analysis
Richard Fay
Loyola University

12:30 - 13:30 Lunch Buffet

13:30 - 15:45 Unscheduled Time for Discussion and Recreation

15:45 - 16:00 Afternoon Break

Session 2: MECHANICAL SENSORS (WAVES, SOUND AND VIBRATIONS)
Session Chairs: Aleksander S. Popel, Johns Hopkins University
William E. Brownell, Baylor, College of Medicine

16:00 - 16:45 The outer hair cell lateral wall: A self-assembling nanoscale actuator/sensor (Keynote Paper)
William E. Brownell
Baylor College of Medicine

16:45 - 17:00 Discussion of Keynote Paper

17:00 - 17:30 Intracochlear measurement of the electromechanical forces produced by the outer hair cells
Anthony W. Gummer
Universität Tübingen

17:30 - 18:00 Theoretical models of outer hair cell electromotility
Aleksander S. Popel, Alexander A. Spector, and Robert M. Raphael
Johns Hopkins University

18:00 -18:15 Coffee Break

18:15 - 18:45 Two calcium-dependent feedback mechanisms control the outer hair cells of the mammalian cochlea
Fabio Mammano
International School for Advanced Studies and INFM Unit
(Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia)

18:45 - 19:15 The silicon cochlea
Rahul Sarpeshkar
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

19:30 - 20:30 Cash Bar (Il Ciocco bar)

20:30 - 22:00 Dinner

22:00 - 23:00 Social Hour

Tuesday, June 13, 2000

07:30 - 08:15 Breakfast Buffet (Dining Room)

Session 3: MECHANICAL SENSORS (FORCE AND MOTION)
Session Chairs: Timothy Secomb, University of Arizona
Jos Spaan, University of Amsterdam

08:15 - 08:30 Introductory comments: Mechanical sensing in the vascular system
Timothy Secomb and Jos Spaan

08:30 - 09:00 Fluid shear stress increases cell membrane fluidity
John A. Frangos, Mark A. Haidekker
University of California, San Diego

09:00 - 09:30 The effect of cortex bending stiffness on cell behavior
Elisha J.P.Martinez
Tel-Aviv University;
Yoram Lanir
Technion, Israel;
Shmuel Einav
Tel-Aviv University

09:30 - 10:00 Mechanism of shear stress-induced coronary microvascular dilation
Lih Kuo, Travis Hein, Michael Davis
Texas A&M University

10:00 - 10:30 Coffee Break

10:30 - 11:00 Force and motion in the coronary circulation: Integration of passive and
active control of coronary flow
Jos Spaan
University of Amsterdam

11:00 - 11:30 Variability of shear stress in optimized arterial tree models
Wolfgang Schreiner, Friederike Neumann, Rudolf Karch, Martin Neumann,
Susanne M. Roedler, Adelheid End
University of Vienna

11:30 -12:00 Structural adaptation of microvascular networks in response to mechanical and metabolic stimuli
Timothy Secomb
University of Arizona;
A.R. Pries
Freie Universität Berlin

12:00 - 12:15 General Discussion

12:30 - 13:30 Lunch Buffet

13:30 - 15:45 Unscheduled Time for Discussion and Recreation

15:45 - 16:00 Afternoon Coffee

Session 4: MECHANICAL SENSORS (FORCE AND MOTION)
Session Chairs: Paul Dario, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa
Joachim Mogdans, University of Bonn

16:00 - 16:45 The physics of arthropod motion-sensing hairs: Biological models for micro-electro-mechanical systems (Keynote Paper)
Joseph A.C. Humphrey
Bucknell University

16:45 - 17:00 Discussion of Keynote Paper

17:00 - 17:30 Mechanic of a tactile hair
Hans-Erich Dechant, F.G. Barth, F.G. Rammerstorfer
University of Vienna

17:30 - 18:00 Reception of water motions with the lateral line: Peripheral adaptations for detection of hydrodynamic signals in still and running water
Joachim Mogdans
University of Bonn;
Jacob Engelmann
Vienna University of Technology;
Horst Bleckmann
University of Bonn

18:00 - 18:15 Break

18:15 - 18:45 Developing microfabrication technologies for biologically inspired force and position sensors
Paolo Dario, C. Laschi, S. Micera, F. Vecchi, M. Zecca, A. Menciassi, B. Mazzolai,
M.C. Carrozza
Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa

18:45 - 19:15 Mechanoreceptors employ the thermal noise for signal detection
Tateo Shimozawa, Jun Murakami
Hokkaido University;
Tsuneko Kumagai
Tsukuba University

19:15 - 19:45 Possible role of vibration sensing in plant pathogen resistance
Tony Farquhar, Helen Meyer, Darian Robbins
University of Maryland

20:00 - 21:30 Dinner

21:30 - 22:30 Social Hour

Wednesday, June 14, 2000

07:30 - 08:15 Breakfast Buffet (Dining Room)

Session 5: VISUAL SENSORS (PHOTORECEPTION AND VISION)
Session Chairs: Nicolas Franceschini, Neurocybernetics Research Group
Walter Kropastch, Vienna University of Technology

08:15 - 09:00 Making and using stay-green plants (Keynote Paper)
Howard Thomas and Janet Taylor
Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, Wales;
Bjorn Alsberg and Jem Rowland
University of Wales;
Heather Ackroyd and Dan Harvey
Studio 9, England;
Helen Ougham
Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, Wales

09:00 - 09:15 Discussion of Keynote Paper

09:15 - 09:45 Optical tomographic imaging system and images
Yukio Yamada
Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Japan;
Mamoru Tamura
Hokkaido University, Japan;
Yoshio Tsunazawa
Shimadzu Corporation, Japan
Hamamatsu Photonics KK, Japan

09:45 - 10:15 Coffee Break

10:15 - 10:45 From insect vision to robot vision
Nicolas Franceschini, Fabrizio Mura, Stéphane Viollet
Neurocybernetics Research Group, France

10:45 - 11:15 Locusts looming detectors for robot sensors
Claire Rind
The Medical School, Newcastle upon Tyne

11:15 - 11:45 Retina-like sensors: Technology and applications
Giulio Sandini
The University of Genoa, Italy

12:30 - 13:30 Lunch Buffet

13:30 - 15:45 Unscheduled Time for Discussion and Recreation

15:45 - 16:00 Afternoon Coffee

Session 6: VISUAL SENSORS (VERTEBRATE VISION)
Session Chairs: Nicolas Franceschini, Neurocybernetics Research Group
Walter Kropastch, Vienna University of Technology

16:00 - 16:45 Steps toward the creation of retinal implant for the blind (Keynote Paper)
John Wyatt
Massachusetts Institute for Technology

16:45 - 17:00 Discussion of Keynote Paper

17:00 - 17:30 Mammalian photoreceptor mosaics, adaptive radiation between sensitivity, color, and space
Peter Ahnelt
University of Vienna

17:30 - 17:45 Break

17:45 - 18:15 Adaptation and response of the human S-cone system
Arthur Shapiro
Bucknell University

18:15 - 18:45 Vision by Graph Pyramids
Walter Kropastch
Vienna University of Technology

18:45 - 19:15 Computing in Cortical Columns: Information Processing in Visual Cortez
Steven Zucker
Yale University

20:00 Bus leaves for Banquet

20:15 - 22:45 Conference Banquet (Rustic Italian Dinner on the Mountain with Music)

Thursday, June 15, 2000

07:30 - 08:15 Breakfast Buffet (Dining Room)

Session 7: CHEMOSENSORS AND CHEMOSENSING
Session Chairs: Haim H. Bau, University of Pennsylvania
Hugh C. Crenshaw, Duke University
Arun Majumdar, University of California, Berkeley

08:15 - 09:00 Artifical noses (Keynote Paper)
John S. Kauer and Joel White
Tufts University

09:00 - 09:15 Discussion of Keynote Paper

09:15 - 09:45 Comparison of basic strategies for following stimulus gradients over a surface
David Dusenberry
Georgia Institute of Technology

09:45 - 10:15 Coffee Break

10:15 - 10:45 Chemo-orientation by microorganisms in three dimensions
Hugh C. Crenshaw
Duke University

10:45 - 11:15 A laboratory investigation of the structure of turbulent odor plumes
John P. Crimaldi, Megan B. Wiley, Jeffrey R. Koseff
Stanford University

11:15 - 11:45 Odor-plume structures encountering hemisquilla ensigueras' sensors and subsequent tracking behavior in a wave-influenced environment
Megan Wiley, Jeffrey Koseff
Stanford University'
Kristina S. Mead, Mimi A.R. Koehl
University of California, Berkeley

12:30 - 13:30 Lunch Buffet

Session 8-A: MICROFLUIDICS
Session Chairs: Haim H. Bau, University of Pennsylvania
Hugh C. Crenshaw, Duke University
Arun Majumdar, University of California, Berkeley

13:30 - 14:00 Micro total analysis systems: Field effect flow control and capillary electrophoresis system with integrated conductivity detector (Keynote Paper)
Albert van den Berg
University of Twente, The Netherlands

14:00 - 14:15 Discussion of Keynote Paper

14:15 - 14:45 Physical, chemical, and biological sensing using microcantilevers
(Keynote paper)
Arun Majumdar
University of California

14:45 - 15:00 Discussion of Keynote Paper

15:00 -15:30 Microfludic systems fabricated in low-temperature co-fired ceramic tapes
Haim H. Bau
University of Pennsylvania

15:30 - 16:00 Electrochemical sensors for detection unmodified nucleic acids
H. Holden Thorp
The University of North Carolina

16:00 - 16:30 In situ electrochemical sensors as mimics for olfactory receptors of aquatic animals
Paul Moore
Bowling Green State University

16:30 - 16:45 Afternoon Coffee

Session 8-B: MICRO-SYSTEMS IN WATER AND AIR
Session Chairs: Haim H. Bau, University of Pennsylvania
Hugh C. Crenshaw, Duke University
Arun Majumdar, University of California, Berkeley

16:45 - 17:30 Epiphytic communities as possible modifiers of the mechanical and chemical stimuli received by marine macrophytes (Keynote Paper)
Evamaria Koch
University of Maryland

17:30 - 17:45 Discussion of Keynote Paper

17:45 - 18:15 Hydrodynamic prey mimic elicits capture from an aquatic microcrustacean
Jeannette Yen
State University of New York, Stony Brook;
David M. Fields
Georgia Institute of Technology

18:15 - 18:45 Living in the dark: The role of mechanoreption in the ecology of marine copepods
David M. Fields, D.S. Shaeffer, Marc Weissburg
Georgia Institute of Technology

18:45 - 19:15 Air flow through pectinate insect antennae
Catherine Loudon and Jun Zhang
University of Kansas

19:15 - 19:45 Flow visualization in microfluidic devices: the FlowVIs freeware package
Sarath Tennakoon, Stephen Katz, Hugh C. Crenshaw
Duke University

20:00 - 21:30 Dinner

21:30 - 22:30 Social Hour

Friday, June 16, 2000

07:30 - 08:15 Breakfast Buffet (Dining Room)

Session 9: OTHER/UNUSUAL SENSORS
Session Chairs: Paul Calvert, University of Arizona
Joseph A.C. Humphrey, Bucknell University

08:15 - 08:45 Freeform fabrication of composites with embedded sensors
Paul Calvert
University of Arizona;
Hugh Denham
Advanced Materials Labs;
Todd Anderson
University of Arizona

08:45 - 09:15 Active dressware: wearable propioceptive systems
Danilo DeRossi
University of Pisa

09:15 - 09:45 Coffee Break

09:45 - 10:15 Brain Sand - Piezoelectric crystals in the pineal gland of the brain
Sidney Lang
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel

10:15 - 10:45 Fetal Electrocardiogram Monitoring via Techniques Non-invasive to the Fetus
Steven Horner
Bucknell University;
William M. Halls
University of Tennessee Medical Center

10:45 - 11:15 The response of aquatic organisms to turbulence: The universality of fluid dynamic sensing
Josef Daniel Ackerman
University of Northern British Columbia

11:15 - 11:45 SESSION SUMMARIES AND PLANS FOR FUTURE MEETINGS
Panel: Friedrich Barth, Joseph A.C. Humphrey, Timothy Secomb

11:45 - 12:00 Symposium Closure

12:30 - 13:30 Lunch Buffet

14:00 Bus departs for Pisa Airport and Train Station

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